About guiding principles
My Tours-Tour is not a subject catalogue.
I’m not looking for an absolute exhaustiveness, neither a systematic analysis of a model, a program, a material, an execution or even a typical American know-how.
Many books have ever classified, sized up, and listed all the towers of the world. With plenty of superlatives and comparatives.
My aim is a Travel in the Sky.
A few words of introduction
Skyscraper: Use of the word
1788: Earliest occurrence of the word. Name given to a horse that in 1789 won the Epsom Derby; in 1826 high-standing horses were referred to as sky-scrapers.
1794: Triangular sky-sail.
1800: Hat or bonnet.
1857: Very tall man.
1866: Fly balls in baseball and cricket.
1883: In “American Architectural Form of the Future”, John Moser discusses the need for a towering structure to distinguish monumental public buildings: “This form of sky-scraper gives that peculiar refined, independent, self-contained, daring, bold, heaven-reaching, erratic, Quixotic, American thought… […] I should trust to American constructive and engineering skill to build it strong enough for any gale”.
1891: A sky-scraper or skyscraper is a building, especially used in Chicago.
Framework of the travel/study
I. The architectural model: birth & growth
a. Early beginnings
1. Technological preparations
2. The commercial building
3. Architectural outcome of the fire
b. Offices in the sky and skyscraper
1. Form follows structure – and vice versa
2. “Form follows finance”
3. “Form follows function”
II. Preserving the old ones
a. The building is getting old: an Heritage
1. The city and the skyline
2. The building
c. Expertises and Investigations
1. Structure and material
1. Structure and material
2. Building laws
4. New guidelines for environmental issues
5. Adaptative reuse
6. Building sites
III. Building the new ones
a. The symbol
b. Municipal and building codes
c. Contemporary Projets
1. Form (still) follows structure
2. Form follows security?
3. New designs
IV. Personnal Inquiries about changes and transformations of the city
a. Budget issues: form (still) follows finance
b. Light and colours
d. Lexicon English/French
e. Density – Vertical Urban Life
ABALOS I., HERREROS J., Tower and Office, from modernist theory to contemporary practice, The MIT Press, 2003.
ALOFSIN A., Prairie Skyscraper, Frank Lloyd Wright’s Price Tower, Rizzoli International Publications, 2005.
ARTEAGA R.F., The Building of the Arch, Eleventh Edition Printing, 2010.
AUSTIN D., Lost Detroit, The History Press, 2010.
BASCOMB N., Higher, A historic race to the sky and the making of the city, Doubleday, 2003.
BIRKMIRE W., The Planning and Construction of High Office Buildings, 1898.
BORK R., Great Spires: Skyscrapers of the New Jerusalem, Kvlner Architekturstudien, 2003.
BRADFORT LAUNDAU S., CONDIT C. W., Rise of the New York Skyscraper 1865-1913, Yale University Press, 1996.
BROWN M., The cathedral of Learning: concept, design, construction, University of Pittsburgh, 1987.
BRUEGMANN R., Architects and the City, Holabird & Roche of Chicago, 1880-1918.
DOS PASSOS J., Manhattan Transfer, Mariner Books, 1925.
DUPRÉ J., Skyscrapers, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Inc, 2008.
GAYLE M. & C., Cast-iron architecture in America, The significance of James Bogardus, WW Norton, 1998.
GILMARTIN G., Shaping the City: New York and the Municipal Art Society
GILMARTIN G., STERN R. AM., New York 1900, New York 1930, Rizzoli International Publications, 1995.
GRISWOLD VAN RENSSELAER M., Henry Hobson Richardson and His Works, Dover Publications, 1969.
FRIEDMAN D., Historical building construction, Design, Materials and technology, Second Edition, WW Norton, 2010.
HOFFMANN D., Frank Lloyd Wright, Louis Sullivan and the Skyscraper, Dover Publications, 1998.
HOMBERGER E., The Historical atlas of New York City, Holt paperback, 2005.
JACOBS J., The death and life of great American cities, Vintage books edition, 1992.
JSAH, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Volume 69, Number 2, June 2010
KOOLHAS R., Delirious New York, The Monacelli Press, 1994.
LARSON E., The devil in the white city, Random House, 2003.
MARJANOVIC I., RÜEDI RAY K., Marina City, Bertrand Goldberg’s urban vision, Princeton Architectural Press, 2010.
MAYER H. M., WADE R. C., Chicago, Growth of a Metropolis, University of Chicago Press, 1969.
MERWOOD-SALISBURY J., Chicago, 1890, The skyscrapers and the modern city, University of Chicago Press, 2009.
MESSLER N., The Art Deco Skyscraper in New York, Peter Lang, 1986.
MULHLSTEIN A., Manhattan, Grasset, 1986.
MUMFORD E., Modern Architecture in St. Louis: Washington University and Postwar American Architecture 1948-1973, School of Architecture Washington University, 2004.
NASH E., Manhattan skyscrapers, 3rd edition Columbia, Mc Vickar Hall.
PENNOYER P., WALKER A., The Architecture of Delano & Aldrich, WW Norton, 2003.
PENNOYER P., WALKER A., The Architecture of Grosvernor Atterbury, WW Norton, 2009.
PENNOYER P., WALKER A., The Architecture of Warren & Wetmore, WW Norton, 2006.
PLUNZ R., Habiter New York, Pierre Mardaga, 1982.
PRIDMORE J., The Reliance Building, Chicago Architecture Foundation, 2003.
RASENBERGER J., High Steel: The daring men who built the world’s greatest skyline, Kindle Edition.
SCHUELLER W., The vertical building structure, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990.
SEMES S.W., The future of the past, WW Norton, 2009.
SPENCER BYARD P., The architecture of additions, WW Norton, 1998.
STARETT W., Skyscrapers and the Men Who Build Them, 1928.
TOKER F., Buildings of Pittsburgh, Society of Architectural Historians, 2007.
WALKER A., Peter Pennoyer Architects, Apartments, Townhouses, Countryhouses, The Vendome Press, 2010.
WILLIS C., Form follows finance, Skyscrapers an d Slylines in New York and Chicago, Princeton Architectural Press, 2005.
WOOD A. C., Preserving New York, Routledge, 2008.
Baltimore architecture, Third Edition, 1997.
Architecture in Cincinnati, 2006.
Dallas, With Regional Highlights, 1999.
Houston, Second Edition, 1999.
New York City Landmarks, Fourth Edition, 2009.
The WPA Guide to New York City, 1939.
Philadelphia Architecture, Third Edition, 2009.
The Architecture of St. Louis, 1989.
AIA Guide to:
Boston, Third Edition, 2008.
Chicago, Second Edition, 2004.
New York, Fifth Edition, 2009.
Washington, D.C., Fourth Edition, 2006.